Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 25

Discipline: Medical Sciences (Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacology etc.)

Type of Paper: Question-Answer

Academic Level: Undergrad. (yrs 3-4)

Paper Format: APA

Pages: 1 Words: 275


    Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 25

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?   the stretching of the bladder wall

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys? metabolizing vitamin D to its active form maintaining the proper balance between water and salts and between acids and bases producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting    producing the hormones melanin and oxytocin

Which of the following is the most likely to cause pyelonephritis? -increased blood flow to the kidneys -decreased blood flow to the kidneys -renal failure -infection of the urinary bladder   infection of the urinary bladder

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.  True

The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.  True

The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.  false

Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.  False

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
A) a podocyte
B) a fenestrated capillary
C) a vasa recta
D) an efferent arteriole     C) a vasa recta

The __ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
A) lobar
B) arcuate
C) cortical radiate
D) interlobar           B) arcuate

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it:    Is drained by an efferent arteriole.

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.   Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

The filtration membrane includes all except ________. A) podocytes
B) basement membrane
C) glomerular endothelium
D) renal fascia                      D) renal fascia

The macula densa cells respond to:    changes in solute content in filtrate (sodium)

Select the correct statement about the nephrons.    The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?    podocyte cells

which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?   macula densa

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?   macula densa cells

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because    stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.    nephron

Which of the following does not describe the juxtaglomerular complex?   Its macula densa cells produce aldosterone.

What is the most direct function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?   help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?   a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure

The __ is an outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue that anchors the kidney and the adrenal gland to surrounding structures. The __ prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidneys
A) fibrous capsule; perirenal fat capsule B) renal fascia; fibrous capsule
C) renal fascia; perirenal fat capsule
D) fibrous capsule; renal fascia      B) renal fascia; fibrous capsule

The __________ collect(s) urine, which drains continuously from the papillae; the urine is then emptied into the __________.    calyces; renal pelvis

Each nephron contains a __________, which is a tuft of capillaries, and a __________.    glomerulus; renal tubule

What arteries branch off the arcuate arteries?    cortical radiate (interlobular) arteries

Which vessel is present in the arterial pathway as blood flows into the kidney but NOT present in the venous pathway exiting the kidney?   

Which vessels supply the cortical tissue of the kidney with blood?-cortical radiate arteries -segmental arteries -interlobar arteries -arcuate arteries     cortical radiate arteries

What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?    glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

Which of the following three parts of the renal tubule is formed by cuboidal epithelial cells bordered by dense microvilli?    The proximal convoluted tubule.

In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?   renal cortex

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the cortical nephrons?   The glomerulus of the cortical nephron is closer to the cortex-medulla junction.

Where does the efferent arteriole of the juxtamedullary nephron carry blood to?-glomerulus -peritubular capillaries -vasa recta -afferent arteriole   vasa recta

Which capillary bed produces filtrate?-glomerulus -peritubular capillaries -juxtaglomerular complex (JGC) -vasa recta     glomerulus

What is the function of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)?-The macula densa cells pass regulatory signals between other cells of the juxtaglomerular complex. -The macula densa cells produce filtrate. -The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule. -The macula densa cells sense blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.     The macula densa cells monitor the NaCl content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule

Where is filtrate produced in the nephron?-glomerulus -peritubular capillaries -vasa recta -juxtaglomerular complex     glomerulus

What vessel directly feeds into the glomerulus?-vasa recta -afferent arteriole -efferent arteriole -cortical radiate artery   afferent arteriole

Which of the following is NOT a cause of anuria?   vasodilation of afferent arterioles

If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine.  False

In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.    True

Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.   true

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.    False

In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water. true or false?  true

The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.    false

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate. true or false?   true

The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation.   true

An excessive urine output is called anuria.   false

Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.   true

The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.   False

Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.   True

the mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ___________    loop of Henle

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to _______.   An increase in the production of ADH

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin:    By a decrease in blood pressure 

which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system   eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts and heat

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.   plasma protien

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.   constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.   diabetes insipidus

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
1. major calyx 2. minor calyx 3. nephron 4. urethra 5. ureter 6. collecting duct      3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?    Net filtration would decrease.

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by              secondary active transport

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________ glomerular hydrostatic pressure

Excretion of dilute urine requires   impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

which of the choices below is not a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?   by secreting sodium ions

In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________.   thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?   ADH

which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?    electrolyte levels

Which of the choices below are the most important hormone regulators of electrolyte reabsorption and secretion?     angiotensin II and aldosterone

How can an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) such as captopril be effective as an antihypertensive?     ACE inhibitors reduce blood pressure by causing less aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone to be released, resulting in more water output and a lowering of the blood volume, which lowers the blood pressure.

Efferent arterioles    May form meandering vessels or bundles of long straight vessels.

Afferent arterioles     High pressure vessel that forces fluid and solutes into the glomerular capsule.

Vasa recta     Play a role in urine concentration.

Glomerular capillaries    Fenestrated vessels that allow passage of all plasma elements but not blood cells.

Peritubular capillaries    Low pressure, porous vessels that reabsorb solutes and water from the tubule cells.

Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.   False

the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is   glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is    osmosis

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ______   hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
A) Na+
B) K+
C) glucose
D) creatinine             creatinine

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it _____   inhibits the release of ADH

Which of the following is not true regarding tubular reabsorption?
It is a purely passive transport process. It is a reclamation process. It occurs via transcellular or paracellular routes. It involves hormonal signals in the collecting ducts.    It is a purely passive transport process.

Which of the following is the least important influence on reabsorption of a substance in the nephron? -lipid solubility. -number of carriers. -molecule size relative to fenestrations. -molecular complexity     molecular complexity

Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?    form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will _______   appear in the urine

Which of the choices below is the least important role of tubular secretion?
disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes ridding the body of excessive potassium ions ridding the body of bicarbonate ions     ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

What type of capillaries make up the glomerulus? -vasa recta - fenestrated -sinusoids -continuous    fenestrated

Overall, which of the following pressures is ultimately responsible for glomerular filtration?    net filtration pressure

Which hormone(s) is/are required for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts? -renin -ADH -both ADH and aldosterone -aldosterone     ADH

A nonfasting urine sample from an individual who has previously ingested donuts and a soft drink showed the presence of sugar (glucose). Which of the following statement explains the presence of the glucose in the urine?     The individual exceeded the transport maximum.

Where does most solute reabsorption occur in the nephron?
distal convoluted tubule proximal convoluted tubule glomerulus collecting duct     Proximal convoluted tubule

Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.   sodium

Upon reaching what point in the nephron is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body's needs at the time, and (2) regulated by hormones? -ascending limb of the loop of Henle -descending limb of the loop of Henle - proximal convoluted tubule -distal convoluted tubule    distal convoluted tubule

Chemicals that enhance urinary output are called _______________.   diuretics

Under normal conditions, the large renal arteries deliver one-fourth of the total cardiac output (about 1200 ml) to the kidneys each minute.   True

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg) is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane.   True

Despite the fact that the kidney's intrinsic controls work to maintain a constant GFR, in some situations the body's extrinsic controls will work to override these intrinsic controls in order to maintain systemic blood pressure.    True

Under normal conditions, the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs all of the glucose, lactate, and amino acids in the filtrate and 65% of the Na+ and water.   True

The descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to both solutes and water.   False

The leading cause of chronic renal disease is hypertension.  False

Which pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane of the glomerulus?    hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)

Which of the following is the volume of filtrate formed each minute by all of the glomeruli of the kidneys?     glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Calculate the net filtration pressure if blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusually high, around 68 mm Hg.-113 mm Hg -83 mm Hg -23 mm Hg -15 mm Hg            23 mm Hg

What hormone promotes active tubular secretion of potassium ions in the late distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting ducts?
parathyroid hormone (PTH) atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aldosterone      aldosterone

In what part of the renal tubule are aquaporins scarce or absent so that water CANNOT be reabsorbed? proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) ascending limb of the nephron loop descending limb of the nephron loop collecting duct     ascending limb of the nephron loop

In what part of the renal tubule does parathyroid hormone (PTH) promote the reabsorption of calcium ions?  collecting duct distal convoluted tubule (DCT) proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) descending limb of the nephron loop    distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

Which statement best describes the effect diuretics have?     Diuretics increase urinary output.

Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its effects to promote water reabsorption?    collecting duct

Proximal convoluted tubule.     site where tubular reabsorption occurs 

Glomerulus.    Site of filtrate formation.

Peritubular capillaries.     Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.

Collecting duct    Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Select the correct statement about ureters   the ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract

The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.   False

Which of the following is NOT a major urine formation process? tubular reabsorption tubular secretion micturition glomerular filtration    micturition

Which urinary structure serves as the temporary storage site for urine? -urinary bladder -renal pelvis -ureter -urethra    urinary bladder

The __ keeps the urethra closed when urine is not being passed from the bladder, and prevents leaking between voiding
A) internal urethral sphincter
B) external urethral sphincter
C) external urethral orifice
D) prostatic urethra            A) internal urethral sphincter

Which of the following is not one of the things that must happen for micturition to occur?
A) the internal urethral sphincter must open
B) the extrusor muscle must relax
C) the detrusor muscle must contract
D) the external urethral sphincter must open      B) the extrusor muscle must relax

Which statement best describes the function of the urethra?-The urethra carries out processes that form urine. -The urethra functions in urine storage. -The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. -The urethra transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.       The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

What region of the male urethra runs through the urogenital diaphragm, extending about 2 cm from the prostate to the beginning of the penis?-ureter -spongy urethra -intermediate part of the urethra (membranous urethra) -prostatic urethra    intermediate part of the urethra (membranous urethra)

What type of epithelial tissue forms the mucosa layer of the urinary bladder?    transitional epithelium

Which of the following is the correct sequence of kidney development from embryo to fetus?    pronephros, mesonephros, metanephros

The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.    True

Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.   True